题 目：古汉语中“以”和“与”在动词前作附着词素的特殊用法（Clitic pronouns yǐ 以 and yǔ 與 in Archaic Chinese）
时 间：11月9日（周四）上午9 : 30
This paper provides evidence for the so far neglected existence of two clitic pronouns, yǐ以 and yǔ與, in Archaic Chinese (10th - 3thc. BC). They both stand for PPs and convey the respective roles expressed by these PPs.
While the clitic pronoun yǔ mainly encodes the comitative/associative, yǐ encodes a large variety of (argument and adjunct) roles, depending on the semantics of the verb involved. Both yǐ and yǔ directly precede the verb and are shown to be part of a complex verbal head.
(1) 南氏生男，則 [vP[v 以告] [PP於 [君…]]] (左傳 12·3·4/3)
‘If Lady Nan gives birth to a male child, then make an announcement about [it] to the Lordship…’
(2) 息侯伐鄭，鄭伯 [vP[v 與戰] [PP于竟]]。(左傳·1·11·6/1)
‘The marquis of Xī attacked the state of Zheng; the earl of Zhèng fought with, i.e. against [him] at the borders.’
One of the possible ressons why the clitic pronouns yǐ and yǔ have gone unnoticed so far is the very common phenomenon of multiple homonymy in Archaic Chinese. The clitic pronoun yǔ for example co-exists along with the verb yǔ ‘to give’, the preposition yǔ ‘with’ and the conjunction yǔ ‘and, with’; though historically related, these different instances of yǔ are clearly separate items in the synchronic grammar of Archaic Chinese. In the case of yǐ, the philological tradition has even established as many as 10-15 different “uses”of yǐ.
Given the complexity of data at hand, an exhaustive overview of the different items yǐ attested for Archaic Chinese will be presented. Will be also discussed the syntax and semantics of the PPs headed by yǐ and yǔ as well as the clitic pronouns yǐ and yǔ. Arguments will be provided against yǐ and yǔ as orphan prepositions, i.e. PPs with a null complement. Instead, yǐ and yǔ are demonstrated to form a complex head with the verb. Like pronouns in general, yǐ and yǔ can also refer to a preceding sentence and have a discourse antecedent.